接下来就让我们关注一下两位选手的已备演讲环节。本届比赛半决赛已备演讲的主题是“A lie has speed, but truth has endurance”。
During the 1960s, the world was terrified of the potential nuclear war. That’s when a Kung-fu Master announced that his Chikung could render him the power to seize an incoming atom bomb bare-handedly. Some authority was immediately interested, and after a scrutiny of his complicated methods, decided to fund him to carry out more researches to defend the nation. The Master used this money to recruit followers and set up training classes across China, and soon nearly half of the population was learning this Chikung stuff. Young and fashionable then, my grandpa was along the list. Crouch down like a toad, take a deep breath, control your chi and move it through your body, and if you learn from the Master long enough, you will be able to release your Chi to move objects without touching them, block yourself from any harmful elements, physical or metaphysical, knives, guns, depressions, diseases, you name it.
To my grandpa’s great dismay, his daughter, my mother, laughed at his almighty Chikung, because television had already been popularized around the 80s, and a lot of Masters gradually lost their credibility with their lies being exposed by TV, the Myth buster, and truth unveiled. However fashion evolves into new forms to subject younger generation. Healthcare products on TV commercials become the new fashion. “This pill could dredge blood vessels because it was made of earthworms, which tunnel in soil to improve ventilation for air and water” “this bedsheet is stuffed with 13 traditional Chinese medicines, sleep on it, and it cures” “This phlegm has been stuck in my throat for 20 years, after I drank this tea with secret ingredients, it is gone!” My thrifty mother was spending considerable money in buying these panaceas, along with millions of other middle-aged adults.
My generation is living in the information era, and the untested metaphysics of healthcare medicine could not fool me easily. I laughed at my mother’s panaceas. History repeats itself. Something else bothers me recently. As you know, with Alibaba and Tencent, China has the largest online shopping system in the whole world, and half of the sales are promoted by streamline bloggers. My girlfriend is a fan of one such blogger who always casually try out fancy products when streamlining to viewers. She puts on some makeup and, with the help of some shiny special effects and video editing, seems to transform into a different person a thousand times more radiant. “Oh, I couldn’t believe the effects of this little cutie!” Neither do I! But my girlfriend and her besties always end up buying these stuffs enviously. Fashion has every generation in its grip!
Why do people make the same mistakes of following fashions blindly and fall for lies so quickly? Admit it, humans are impatient; we are very hasty in seeking for quick solutions to problems and while doing so, we want to take the easiest shortcuts to achieve the best outcomes. My grandpa wants to protect himself from the nuclear bombs, my mother wants to stay healthy, and my girlfriend wants to be as pretty as the bloggers with their special effects on. We just cannot resist a lie ingeniously tailored to our tastes, so there comes the strange phenomenon that even as technology develops day by day, the speed of exposing obsolete lies cannot catch up with the speed of new ones.
Fortunately, humans do have one distinct merit. We learn from our mistakes and correct ourselves. Copernicus’ sun-centered model outlived the earth-centered dogma. The declaration that “all men are created equal” leads to the end of slavery. The age-long struggle of the greatest intellects in the world to shake off false notions and lies has proved that lies may befog people but never endure. My grandpa, ever since he heard that a cancer-curing Chikung Master had died of cancer, stopped doing Chikung in wish for immortality. My mother, after her cure-all bedsheets worn out in less than a month, also began to suspect the honesty of those TV commercials and has chosen to stay healthy by exercise instead of seeking panaceas. My girlfriend, unfortunately, hasn’t snapped out of the streamline shopping craze yet, but I believe she will see through the masks of blogebrities one day, because the spell of lies will be overridden by the endurance of truth, as it always has been.
Ladies and gentlemen, let’s start with a scenario. Let’s suppose that you saw an intriguing statement on Twitter: In the film Avengers 4: Endgame, Captain America dies. What is your first reaction? For most people, it is to share it with their friends instead of finding out the original source of that information. The truth is that, nowadays, it is getting harder and harder to differentiate from true and false.
Quoting the admission statement of MIT, one of the few top innovation institutes in the world, “We are to generate, disseminate and preserve knowledge.” In the light of this statement, lies have overtaken truth on our road of recognition in the first 2 aspects in the age of industrial Internet. And please allow me to tell you why.
First, the responsibility of posting, commenting and sharing has shrunk considerably due to the anonymity of the Internet, which helps the generation of lies. Behind the mask of “free speech”, net users can say anything, to exaggerate, deceive and misuse at will. What’s more, the Internet has made us more reckless, more irrational and subject to the manipulation of emotions. Compared with the time when people write to each other, how many of us review every sentence we typed in our phone while we are chatting? And compared with the well-designed parade calling for civil rights, how easy it is to simply add a hashtag in front of a sentence and start a movement online? Both writing and starting a campaign require careful thinking and discreet composing. But in this age, our actions online are, more often than not, steered by strong emotions, like enthusiasm instead of a clear mind. And the virus of lies find these gaps and use them as the vessels of their own dissemination. Lies are not scary, and not all of them are harmful to this society. But it is the rapid spread of a lie that really horrifies us.
However, let’s look at truth. Truth is defined as something objective or something repeatedly proved right. And when it comes to the online aspect, authority became the key word. For instance, when a bus crash incident occurred in China in February, thousands of net users commented on the the driver’s conditions of fatigue while driving. But when the Department of Transport released the official surveillance video three days later which showed that it was actually a woman who argued with the driver and tried to take control of the wheel that resulted in the tragedy. At that moment, everyone went to silence as instead of comforting souls, they have caused untold suffering to the driver’s relatives. As it requires sophisticated collecting and collaborating of proof, the publishing of truth requires time. And during that time, lies can hurt people.
That’s why truth never wins in speed, nevertheless, always prevails in quality. Another example is during my doing research when preparing for model United Nations on the topic of Venezuelan crisis. News and bloggers tell me that “The crisis of Venezuela is entirely due to the corruption of the political system”, which is an idea that worked out for me so well. But under the guidance of that idea, the conference hall is filled with vague accusations and hollow promises. After that, I did more research and found out that it was really Venezuela’s total reliance on the petroleum sector that caused the havoc. Her economy is too fragile. And all of a sudden, delegates reached common consensus to give humanitarian aid to the nation and helped build infrastructure. So the second reason for truth to endure is its power of stimulating an event to develop for the better. Truth assists us to see the nature of an event and facilitates our understanding and corresponding.
Ladies and gentlemen, the Internet technology does not take sides. But because of its interactive nature, the Internet is an amplifier which will inject power to its contents. And on this platform, lies gave us temporary pleasure and yet truth gave us profound inspirations. Let’s use our energy of innovation to preserve truth and slow down lies by establishing a better environment online. Thank you.
”Nobody is too old for fairytale"
"Those who do not practice magic will never understand it"
陈逸贤的即席话题则是“Space Exploration is a waste of money”，根据其丰富的天体物理知识，结合自己在清华的导师的老师和宇宙探索的真实故事，逻辑缜密地反对了这一观点。
Fun facts: 在IPSC比赛进行过程中，不论再精彩的讲演，都是没有掌声雷动的场面的哦~由于三场Heats同时在相邻的房间进行，为了不相互打扰进程，选手演讲完毕后，全体观众将双手举至与耳平齐的位置，并来回晃动，以作为一种“无声鼓掌”~
By the way, 怎样的演讲才能在IPSC国际赛中取得高分？怎样才能从50多个国家和地区的精英选手中脱颖而出？小二带你了解一下ESU的官方评判标准。
At the IPSC, the adjudication panels for both of the heats are made up of public speaking and debating coaches, university students who have competed in public speaking and debating competitions at school and university level, Government officers, ESU Governors, university professors, experienced lawyers and IPSC alumni (i.e. those who have competed in the IPSC in previous years)，
The adjudication panel for the grand final of the IPSC is made up of accomplished public speakers and communications experts, many of whom use their oratorical and persuasive skills as part of their professional lives (e.g. TV and radio presenters, lawyers etc.).
Expression and Delivery, 35 Marks
Expression and Delivery focuses on the clarity of communication of a speaker, as well as their ability to obtain and sustain the interest of the audience through their manner of speech and use of language.
Speakers in the IPSC are expected to bear in mind the four principle aims of
public speaking: to persuade, inform inspire and entertain the audience and
adjudicators. These skills are demonstrated through the awareness of the importance of a strong introduction and conclusion the use of a clear and variable speaking voice, and an awareness of the tools of non-verbal communication.
Reasoning and Evidence (35 Marks)
Reasoning and evidence places the focus upon the ability of the participant to construct ideas and arguments, supported by logical chains of reasoning and supporting evidence. The speakers' key focus should be on providing analysis explaining why what they are saying is true and why it supports the overall thesis of their speech.
Organisation and Prioritisation (15 Marks)
Structure is important in that it helps maintain the audience's attention by telling the audience and adjudicators what they can expect to hear, presenting the arguments in order of importance, and providing emphasis
and reiteration of arguments where required. A typical speech would be expected to have an introduction, main content, and a conclusion.
Listening and Response (15 Marks)
The ability to justify the arguments made is a key skill in public speaking, and the question period after the speech is designed to test the speaker's knowledge of the surrounding issues, as well as their ability to listen and respond to questions, justifying the position they have. As part of their preparation speakers should have considered alternative points of view to those presented in their speech, and considered how best to respond. Speakers should always listen to the question that is actually asked and avoid giving prepared answers to anticipated questions.